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Arrow   MORE SMART CARDS

A smart card resembles a credit card in size and shape, but inside it is completely different. First of all it HAS an inside -- a normal credit card is a simple piece of plastic. The inside of a smart card usually contains an embedded 8-bit microprocessor. The microprocessor is under a gold contact pad on one side of the card. Think of the microprocessor as replacing the usual magnetic stripe on a credit card or debit card.

Smart cards are much more popular in Europe than in the U.S. In Europe the health insurance and banking industries use smart cards extensively. Every German citizen has a smart card for health insurance. Even though smart cards have been around in their modern form for at least a decade, they are just starting to take off in the U.S.

Magnetic stripe technology remains in wide use in the U.S. However, the data on the stripe can easily be read, written, deleted or changed with off-the-shelf equipment. Therefore, the stripe is really not the best place to store sensitive information. To protect the consumer, businesses in the U.S. have invested in extensive online mainframe-based computer networks for verification and processing. In Europe, such an infrastructure did not develop and instead the card carries the intelligence. There are advantages and disadvantages to both systems.

The microprocessor on the smart card is there for security. The host computer and card reader actually "talk" to the microprocessor. The microprocessor enforces access to the data on the card. If the host computer read and wrote the smart card's random access memory (RAM), it would be no different than a diskette.

Smarts cards may have up to 1 Kbytes of RAM, 16 Kbytes of programmable read only memory, 24 Kbytes of read only memory (ROM), with an 8-bit microprocessor running at 5 MHz. The smart card uses a serial interface and receives its power from external sources like a card reader. The processor uses a limited instruction set for applications such as cryptography.

The most common smart card applications are:

  • Credit cards
  • Electronic cash
  • Computer security systems
  • Wireless communication
  • Loyalty systems, like frequent flyer points
  • Banking
  • Satellite TV
  • Government identification

Smart cards can be used with a smart card reader attachment to a personal computer to authenticate a user. Web browsers too, can use smart card technology to supplement Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) for improved security of Internet transactions. The recent American Express Online Wallet shows how online purchases work using a smart card and a PC equipped with a smart card reader. Smart card readers can also be found in mobile phones and vending machines.

 

 

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